Components

Solar power generation systems are composed of the following elements.

Photovoltaic Panels

Photovoltaic panels are devices used to convert the energy coming from sunlight into energy in the form of a continuous electric current. They are made of a semiconductor material (silicon). This absorbs semiconductor absorbs light. This energy releases free electrons, which then flow through an electric field. Metal conductors are used to extract the current for external use
Because silicon by itself is a very poor conductor, to increase the conductivity, impurities are added to the silicon. These impurities cause electrons to be released more easily. The added impurities can be phosphorus, (silicon N) that increases the number of free carriers, and can also be boron (P-type silicon)

Panel types

There are currently two cell technologies for solar panels: monocrystalline and polycrystalline. Both fulfill the same function: capture energy and convert it into electricity.

Both are made of silicon
Both have a lifespan of 25 years

Monocrystalline:
▪ Silicon formed in bars and cut into wafers.
▪ Electrons have more room to move.
▪ Efficiency: 15-20%
• Monocrystallines are more expensive due to their greater efficiency.
Polycrystalline:
▪ Also silicon
▪ Silicon fragments fused together.
▪ Also called “multicrystalline”.
▪ Less freedom for electrons to move.
▪ Efficiency: 13-16%.
▪ Polycrystalline. Less efficient than monocrystalline cells.

Inverters

A solar inverter or a photovoltaic inverter is a type of electrical converter that transforms the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic solar panel (PV) into alternating current (AC) of public service frequency that can be fed into an electrical network commercial or used by a local electrical network, OFF GRID. It is a critical component of the photovoltaic system that allows the use of ordinary equipment powered by AC. Solar energy inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-isolation protection.

Inverter types

Autonomous inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter extracts its DC power from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally, these are not interconnected in any way with the public services network, and as such, they are not required to have anti-isolation protection.

Network connection inverters, which combine the phase with a sine wave supplied by the public network. The inverters of connection to the network are designed to turn off automatically in case of loss of supply of public services, for security reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages.

Battery backup inverters are special inverters designed to extract energy from a battery, manage the battery charge through an integrated charger and export the excess power to the power grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC power to selected loads during a public service outage, and they are required to have anti-isolation protection.


Intelligent hybrid inverters manage the photovoltaic matrix, the storage of the battery and the electrical network, which are coupled directly to the unit. These modern all-in-one systems are often very versatile and can be used for grid-connection, stand-alone or stand-alone applications, but their main function is self-consumption with the use of storage.

Meters

They are used to measure the amount of energy injected and taken from the network. It shows the balance between what is imported and what is exported.

Types of solar meters:
• Netting meter
• Bidirectional meter

Net meter
Shows the net consumption of energy in the house
Indicates the difference between what is exported and imported from the network

Bidirectional meters:
Similar to the previous one, it has 3 screens:
Test screen st
Energy taken from the network
Power injected into the network.

They measure the production rate in Watt
Solar meters use a magnetic field to measure the current

Net measurement
It is the balance between the energy imported and exported in
Clients only bill their use of NET energy.
Only 20-30% of the energy produced by a Solar System is destined to
the grid.
Policies and net metering rates vary by country, state and
Province